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2011年在职MBA共享笔记之英语语法概述:非谓语动词

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2011-09-17 10:30  作者:  来源:网络  字号:T|T

  第八节 非谓语动词用定语和状语

  一、非谓语动词的概念

 

  非谓语动词是指动词不定式、动名词和分词。它们是动词的非限定形式。在句子中它们起着一些特殊的作用。以下简要介绍它们各自的构成、作用及应用。

 

  二、动词不定式

 

  不定式是指带to的动词原形(使用中有时不带to),在句中起形容词或副词的作用, 可以作状语和定语。

 

  (一)作定语

 

  1. 动词不定式与其修的词之间往往有动宾关系, 如果该不定式是不及物动词, 其后有必要的介词。

 

  He’s pleasant fellow to work with.

  There’s nothing to worry about.

 

  2. 有些名词后常跟不定式作定语。例如: time, reason, chance, right, ability, willingness, need, anxiety, wish, plan等。

 

  Women should have the right to receive education.

  There is no time to hesitate.

 

  3. the first, the second, the last, the best 等之后用不定式做定语。

 

  The monitor will be the first to come.

  He was the last man to blame.

 

  (二)作状语

 

  1. 作目的状语

 

  不定式作状语时, 其动作发生在谓语动词之后, 一般置于句子末尾。但是, 如果表示强调, 亦可置于句首。其否定形式为: 在不定式符号前加not。

 

  He went to Shanghai to visit his parents.

  To save the earth, we must prevent the earth from being polluted.

  I shut the door quietly, so as not to wake the baby.

 

  2. 作结果状语

 

  We came home after our holiday to find our garden neat and tidy.

  She left home, never to return again.

 

  3. 作原因状语

 

  不定式做原因状语时, 一般放在句子末尾。

 

  She burst into laughter to see his funny action.

  The boy was shocked to see the frightening scene.

 

  4. 作独立成分

 

  有些固定词组带to不定式, 表明说话人的立场或态度, 在句中作独立成分。

  这些词有:

  to be honest, to begin with, to cut a long story short,to get (back) to the point, not to make much of it,to put it another way, to tell the truth等。

 

  To tell you the truth, I have never been to Beijing.

  To be honest, I have never heard of Winston Churchill.

  We can’t go. To begin with, it’s too cold.我们不能去。首先,天太冷了。

  To cut a long story short, I decided to stay.简而言之,我决定留下。

  In the cousre of a day students do far more than just attend classes.(more than+不带to的不定式)

 

  三、动名词

 

  动名词也是动词的一种非限定形式, 由动词原形加词尾-ing构成。与现在分词构成法相同。它同时具有动词及名词特征。

 

  以下主要介绍其做定语及状语的情况。

 

  1. 作定语

 

  None is allowed to smoke in the waiting room.

  The speeding car came to a stop all of a sudden.

 

  2. 作状语

 

  介词+动名词可以作状语用, 表示时间、原因、目的、让步、方式等。

 

  After finishing the job, he went home.

  He was blamed for having done something wrong.

  They went to Manchester with the object of winning the World Championship.

 

  四、分词

 

  分词是动词的三种非限定形式之一, 包括现在分词和过去分词两种。分词可以在句中作状语及定语。

 

  (一)现在分词与过去分词的区别

 

  现在分词与过去分词的区别主要表现在语态和时间概念上。在语态上,现在分词(除被动式外)表示主动意思, 过去分词表示被动意思。在时间上, 现在分词表示动作正在进行, 过去分词则表示动作已完成。

 

  developing countries(发展中国家)

  developed countries(发达国家)

  the touching tale(动人的传说)

  the touched audince(受感动的观众)

 

  (二)现在分词的用法

 

  现在分词可在句中作定语和状语。

 

  1. 作定语

 

  现在分词作定语时多置于它所修饰的名词前:

 

  This is a pressing question.

  这是一个紧迫的问题。

 

  He asked an embarrassing question.

  他提了一个令人难堪的问题。

 

  现在分词亦可置于它所修饰的名词之后:

  There were no soldiers drilling.

 

  现在分词短语一般皆置于其修饰的名词之后:

  A little child learning to walk often falls.

  The men working here are all from the rural areas.

 

  2. 现在分词用作状语

 

  现在分词及其短语从表意的角度看, 也可用作状语, 表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。其动作可能发生在谓语动词之前或之后, 也可能与谓语动的动作同时发生。

 

  (1)表示时间

 

  Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a magnificent view.

  

工商管理硕士 MBA 英语辅导 相关文章导读

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